is executive director of the Enneagram Institute in New York. He is the co-author, with Don Richard Riso, of several books including The Wisdom of the Enneagram and Personality Types (revised edition).
A growing number of people are aware of the Enneagram as an accurate and profound map of personality. The nine Enneagram types are based on the three primary centers of intelligence: thinking, emotion, and instinct. However, in almost all human beings, distortions or blockages in these centers have led to a loss of connection with our essential nature and to the arising of ego structures to compensate for this loss. Thus, while our Enneagram type usually obscures our true nature with a characteristic web of defenses, it can also serve as an opening to the deeper reality of spirit.